A foot and ankle deformity is an acquired or birth originated malformation that can limit activities of daily life, cause pain, or other problems.

Foot & ankle deformities we commonly treat include:

Hallux valgus deformity (bunion) – A bunion is a deformity involving the big toe and joint that results in an enlarged bump or prominence. Sometimes the joint can be painful, arthritic, and it can be difficult to fit into shoes. Pain can be aggravated by normal activities and daily life. Being in this fixed position over time and abnormal gait (walking) can cause other associated pain in the foot and toes.

Hammertoe – A hammertoe is a deformity or flexion contracture of the toes, mostly the lesser toes. Complications such as corns, calluses, or ulcerations can arise when the joints become stiff and rub against the shoes. Hammertoes can worsen over time, causing the toes to overlap, cross over, drift in other directions, or become dislocated. Hammertoe of the big toe is known as Hallux malleus.

Pes planovalgus (Flat foot deformity) – Flat foot deformity can be an acquired or hereditary disorder involving the posterior tibial tendon. The foot can progressively lose shape and stability, and other joint pains in the foot and ankle can occur. The foot becomes flatter and turned outwards, causing the joints to adapt in an abnormal position.

Pes cavus (high arch deformity) - High arch deformity has many different variations. In all cases it affects how the foot is functioning and where the pressure is distributed. Often times it can lead to other issues such as tendinitis, plantar fasciitis, ankle impingements, and fractures.

Adult clubfoot deformity - An adult clubfoot deformity is a non treated or incorrectly treated clubfoot that has become increasingly deformed from walking on other parts of the foot not designed to be walked on. This typically painful deformity can lead to fracture and inability to wear normal shoes.


Deformity planning involves a thorough clinical examination followed by appropriate radiographic imaging. Both are done to evaluate the level of deformity, the presence of arthritis, and soft tissue contractures. We will then discuss a customized treatment plan involving appropriate operative or non-operative treatments.